Financial impact of solving tribological problems in the sealing industry. J. Netzel. Lubric. Engng., May 1999, 55(5), 36--41.

The importance of mechanical seals is reviewed. They are cooled and lubricated by the process fluid but pressures and temperatures are often hostile to providing a good lubricating environment. Seals are classified in two categories. The first is a mechanical grouping in which irregular motion can cause misalignment, pipe strain, and vibration transfer to the seal faces. The second is an operational grouping in which process problems cause wear and distress at the seal faces. Liquid-lubricated seals and non-contacting gas-lubricated seals are described. Eight causes of short seal life are listed and sealing solutions are reviewed. The latter include sealing requirements for cryogenic fluids used by industry, food processing, and medical facilities. 4 refs.

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