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Control loading emissions. J.H. Siegall. Hydrocarbon Processing, May 1998, 77(5), 61--70.

Emissions of volatile organic compounds during loading operations can be 30% of the total. Significant reductions are achieved by decreasing turbulence and by using bottom or submerged loading rather than splash loading. Other emission controls include vapour balancing, installing vapour recovery technologies such as condensation, absorption and adsorption, or using vapour destruction technologies such as thermal and catalytic oxidation flares and biofilters. Each of these emission control technologies is discussed and advantages and disadvantages are tabulated. The most appropriate technology depends upon type of gas stream, concentration, required efficiency, location, economics, and other factors. 7 refs.

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