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Offshore construction requirements moving existing technical boundaries. E.P. Heerema. Pipeline Gas Ind., Offshore Pipeline Technol. Supplement, April 1998, 81(4), 32--35.

Two pipelay vessels are described and existing technical boundaries are being extended for laying heavy large-diameter pipes in deep water. Lines up to 28 in. diameter are required for natural gas transportation. Dynamic positioning is used on vessels designed for deepwater pipelaying. Automatic welding systems are described, features of S-lay and J-lay operations are compared, and stresses on the pipeline are discussed. Stress intensification at field joints is important on concrete coated pipes and possible solutions to this problem are described. The preferred vessel has a layspeed approximately twice that of existing large pipelayers and its performance suggests that large diameter pipelines can be layed economically in deep water.

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