Improve flare safety to meet ISO-9000 standards. J.F. Straitz. Hydrocarbon Processing, June 1996, 75(6), 109--114.

The use of flares as essential safety systems in hydrocarbon processing plants is discussed. These must be designed to comply with ISO-9000 emission standards. Typical case histories from US refineries include breakage of refractory pieces from line flare burners, loss of protection from incineration temperatures of 1200 degrees C, safety problems due to restriction of waste gas flow, metal corrosion by trapped moisture, and explosion hazards due to ingress of air below the flue burner. Retrofitting pilot burners is discussed. Burners with individual gauges for steam and oil are suggested to improve operational safety. Additional benefits are better fuel conservation, reduction of harmful emissions, and improved combustion operations. 11 refs.

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