Hydrogen technologies to meet refiners future needs. J.M. Abrardo and V. Khurana. Hydrocarbon Processing, February 1995, 74(2), 43--49.
The hydrogen content of various refinery streams is summarized in tabular form. Recovery systems involving membrane, pressure swing adsorption, and cryogenic technologies are reviewed. Methods for increasing steam reforming capacity by reformer retubing, pre-reforming, oxygen secondary reforming, and heat exchange reforming are discussed. New techniques for improving hydrogen production by steam reforming of light fractions from natural gas to naphtha are reviewed. Partial oxidation (POX) processes are recommended for producing hydrogen from heavy fractions such as vacuum bottoms, deasphalter bottoms, refinery sludges, and petroleum coke. Economic aspects of POX technology for the conversion of heavy residues are discussed. 21 refs.