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Improve high-temperature expansion joint design. R.K. Broyles. Hydrocarbon Processing, November 1994, 73(11), 55--58.

The operation of metal-bellows expansion joints in high temperature applications is discussed in applications such as FCCU standpipes, flue gas lines, vessel internals, heat exchangers, and superheater steam distribution systems. Four designs for high temperature expansion joints are described and illustrated. Steps in the calculation of actual bellows material temperatures are described. Mathematical expressions are used to define inner and outer boundary layers, enclosed space layer, and insulation/refractory layers. Cold work considerations are reviewed and other design factors such as conical transitions, floating ring construction, and shell attachment insulation are described and illustrated. 5 refs.

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