Fluid power engineering with fire resistant hydraulic fluids---experiences with water-containing hydraulic fluids. J. Reichel. Lubric. Engng., December 1994, 50(12), 947--952.

Health and operational safety aspects of water-based hydraulic fluids are reviewed. These fire-resistant hydraulic fluids are compulsory in the hard coal industry. The different categories are defined by the ISO 6743/4 standard. The composition, applications, and flammability ratings of eleven different hydraulic fluids are summarized in tabular form. Features of each category are discussed. Wear protection under sliding and rolling test conditions is described and corrosion protection properties are reviewed. Mechanical testing in a vane pump and life tests in a pump/motor test rig operating with a closed hydrostatic circuit are reported. Fluids are specifically recommended for use in hydraulically driven underground hard coal mining equipment.

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