Coprocessing of fossil fuels with biomass. Part 2. Vacuum residue with coal and wood on lignin. (In German). F. Krey and H.-H. Oelert. Erdol Erdgas Kohle, January 1996, 112(1), 30--34.
In the investigation reported into the hydrogenation of vacuum residue with coal and wood or lignin, the experiments were carried out in an autoclave with 12 Mpa hydrogen at 410 to 440 oC, with a resistance time of 0 to 60 minutes. The results were evaluated over fractionation in several product fractions and over the analytical characterization of some of these fractions. Synergetic effects between the residue, coal and the biomass, which are different to those synergistic effects found in mixtures of vacuum residue with coal or biomass alone, result in a different yield of oils and different yields of insoluble coke. The reason being the higher thermal sensibility of biomass which bonds are split at lower temperatures than the bonds of the vacuum residue. Hence the biomass builds radicals which act as initiator for the reactions of the vacuum residue. The reactions of brown coal can be more initiated but not the reactions of high bituminous coal. 21 refs.