Inherently safer design principles are proven in expansions. A.J. McCarthy and U.R. Miller. Hydrocarbon Processing, April 1997, 76(4), 122--125.

Retrofitting existing facilities to increase production is discussed. Incremental capacity can be significantly cheaper and effects on safety aspects of processing operations are described. Risks increase because larger volumes of explosive or hazardous chemicals are handled. Safety statistics are reviewed for chemical processing plants and the concept of fatal accident rate is introduced. Conventional safety principles are discussed and these are improved by introducing inherently safer plant designs. OHSA and API legislative requirements are described with reference to enhanced surface/tube and shell heat exchangers, feedstock storage/surge within a petrochemical unit, and feed pump operations. Contractual issues, product quality, and other factors are also discussed. 5 refs.

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