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Celebrating two years of reporting on the industry’s progress toward net zero

ISSN 2753-7757 (Online)
Row of floating wind turbines heading into distance Photo: Iberdrola
Iberdrola’s East Anglia One wind farm in the North Sea, commissioned in 2020, consists of 102 turbines with generation capacity of 714 MW

Photo: Iberdrola

In the rapidly evolving world of global energy, the burgeoning interest and investments flooding into renewable energy signal a seismic shift in how nations, corporations and investors approach energy generation and consumption. As traditional energy sources face growing environmental, economic and social scrutiny, renewable energy has ascended to the forefront of investment opportunities, particularly in Europe, reports Sara Siddeeq.

Europe’s rapidly transforming landscape of renewable energy investments is driven by a confluence of technological advancements, market dynamics and progressive policy frameworks. The current investment trends indicate a clear shift towards innovative technologies and sectors that promise sustainability coupled with profitability.


Technologically, the focus is expanding beyond traditional renewables like wind and solar power. Cutting-edge developments in energy storage, smart grid technologies and bioenergy are attracting significant investments. For instance, the emergence of battery storage solutions is revolutionising the way energy is stored and distributed, mitigating the intermittency issues associated with solar and wind energy. Similarly, investments in smart grids, such as the Smart Grid Gotland project in Sweden, are facilitating more efficient energy management and distribution, further bolstering the renewable sector’s robustness.


The market dynamics are equally influential. Decreasing costs and improving efficiencies of renewable technologies are attracting more investors. For example, the record low price achieved in Portugal’s 2019 solar power auction demonstrates the decreasing costs of renewable technologies. Additionally, consumer demand for green energy is driving utilities and corporations to increase their renewable investments, as seen in the rising number of corporate power purchase agreements in Europe, namely Google’s agreement for a 10 MW solar farm in the Netherlands.


European policy initiatives, such as the European Green Deal and the Fit for 55 package, are critical in fostering this investment climate. These policies set ambitious renewable targets and provide financial incentives, reducing risks and enhancing the sector’s appeal.


Key players and strategies
Europe’s renewable energy sector is shaped by diverse key players, each contributing uniquely to the green gold rush. Major energy companies, venture capitalists, government bodies and startups are pivotal in this landscape.


Traditional energy companies, notably Iberdrola and Ørsted, are pivoting from fossil fuels to renewable energy, focusing on wind and solar projects. Using their extensive resources, they are venturing into large-scale, international renewable energy projects. Iberdrola, for instance, has made significant investments in onshore and offshore wind and solar energy, as evidenced by its involvement in the East Anglia ONE offshore wind farm in the UK. Ørsted, transforming from an oil and gas company to a wind energy leader, is heavily investing in offshore wind farms, exemplified by its Hornsea Project One in the UK. These shifts represent a broader industry trend towards embedding sustainability and ecological responsibility into the core business strategies of traditional energy companies.


Venture capitalists and private equity firms are increasingly investing in renewable energy startups, driving innovation in areas such as advanced biofuels and high-efficiency photovoltaics. For example, Breakthrough Energy Ventures, co-founded by Bill Gates, focuses on investing in companies developing innovative technologies to combat climate change. They have invested in several promising renewable energy startups, including those specialising in next-generation biofuels and energy storage solutions. This infusion of capital is speeding up both technological advances and market readiness.


Government entities such as The European Investment Bank play a crucial role in shaping the investment landscape through policies and funding renewable projects, especially in regions where private investment is scarce. Its focus extends beyond mere financial support, encompassing efforts to create a stable regulatory environment conducive to long-term investments.


Opportunities: A technical and economic analysis
In the heart of the green gold rush lies a spectrum of opportunities that blend technical innovation with economic viability. Technological leaps are enhancing efficiency and scalability. Innovations in photovoltaic (PV) technology, such as the development of perovskite solar cells, are improving solar panel efficiency, reducing land and resource use. Similarly, advancements in offshore wind, exemplified by Hywind Scotland, the world’s first floating wind farm, are opening new possibilities in energy generation, especially in geographies with deep coastal waters.


Economically, the declining cost of renewable technologies is a game-changer. As these technologies mature, renewable energy becomes increasingly competitive with fossil fuels.


Successful projects like the Hornsea project exemplify how large-scale investment in advanced technology can yield significant economic and energy output benefits. Similarly, Germany’s rapid expansion in solar energy, having installed more than one million new solar power systems last year, highlights the economic potential of embracing decentralised energy models.


Risk assessment and management in energy investments
Investing in renewable energy, while promising, carries its unique set of risks. Understanding and managing these risks is crucial for the success and sustainability of investments in this sector.


Technical risks: Renewable energy projects are often at the forefront of technological innovation, which brings inherent risks. For example, the early adoption of offshore wind technology in the UK faced concerns about the long-term durability of turbines in harsh marine environments. Investors mitigated these risks through thorough due diligence and partnerships with experienced companies.


Market risks: Fluctuating energy prices, changing consumer demands and the emergence of new technologies can significantly impact the profitability of renewable energy projects. Diversification of investments across different technologies and geographic regions is a strategy many investors employ to spread and minimise these risks.


Policy risks: The renewable energy sector is heavily influenced by government policies and regulatory frameworks. Spain’s solar market has indeed navigated through a period of regulatory upheaval and subsidy reductions, highlighting the sector's need for adaptability and strategic foresight. The country has faced substantial legal challenges stemming from the withdrawal of state incentives previously offered to spur investments in the renewable sector. This withdrawal led to a series of international legal disputes, with investors claiming billions in compensation under the Energy Charter Treaty, a situation that underscored the complexities of policy risks in the renewable energy landscape.


Investing in renewable energy, while promising, carries its unique set of risks: technical, market and policy-based. Understanding and managing these risks is crucial for the success and sustainability of investments in this sector.


Impact of policy and global economic factors
The renewable energy investment landscape in Europe is significantly influenced by international policies and global economic factors. These elements shape investment decisions and market developments, creating a complex web of opportunities and challenges.


Policy at both the European Union (EU) and national levels plays a pivotal role in shaping the energy sector’s transition towards renewable energy and carbon neutrality. The EU’s ambitious targets, as outlined in the European Green Deal, aim for a climate-neutral continent by 2050 and set a clear direction. For instance, the Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) mandates a binding target of at least 42.5% renewable energy by 2030. Additionally, national initiatives like Germany’s Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), which provides feed-in tariffs, and Spain’s commitment to 74% electricity from renewables by 2030 under its National Energy and Climate Plan, demonstrate the tangible actions taken to foster investment in renewable energy. Subsidies, tax incentives and regulatory support under these policies are key drivers. However, the variability of policies across member states, such as France’s tax credits for solar and wind power, adds layers of complexity, necessitating careful navigation by investors.


Global economic factors significantly influence the feasibility and profitability of renewable energy projects. For instance, fluctuations in commodity prices, such as the surge in silicon prices in 2020, can directly affect the cost of constructing solar panels. Similarly, interest rate changes directly impact financing for these capital-intensive projects, influencing investment decisions. Additionally, the exchange rate of the Euro against other major currencies affects the cost of importing renewable energy technologies into Europe. Furthermore, the global oil market, including price drops like those experienced in 2014–2016, can indirectly affect the renewable sector by making fossil fuels more economically attractive in the short term, challenging the competitiveness of renewables.


Moreover, the interplay between international trade dynamics and renewable energy investments is becoming increasingly relevant. Trade policies, tariffs and cross-border cooperation in energy infrastructure influence the flow of investments and the competitiveness of renewable energy technologies on a global scale.


Understanding and adapting to these policy and economic factors are crucial for investors. For example, the resilience of wind energy investments in the face of economic downturns in several European countries demonstrates the importance of strategic planning and adaptability in this volatile environment.


Ethical considerations and social responsibility are becoming integral to investment strategies in the renewable energy sector. For example, firms like Morgan Stanley demonstrate this shift by investing in projects that not only promise financial returns but also foster community development and environmental sustainability.


Future outlook
As Europe strides towards a sustainable future, the energy sector stands at the forefront of a green transformation. Innovations like hydrogen fuel cells and advanced storage technologies are reshaping the landscape, promising a surge in efficiency and sustainability. This is a future where energy is cleaner, more accessible and democratically distributed, thanks to decentralised systems and community-led initiatives.


The European energy investment scene is ripe with opportunities, driven by a commitment to sustainability and technological advancement. For stakeholders, the future is not just bright; it’s green, signalling a time for action and investment in a resilient, sustainable energy framework.