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|Title||Decarbonisation of transport worldwide|
|Authors||Energy Institute Knowledge Service team|
Transport produced an estimated 23% of global CO2 emissions in 2014
KEY CO2 Emissions tends: Excerpt from CO2 emissions from Fuel Combustion (2016 edition) IEA 2017. Fig 10., Page 7.
“For transport, the 71% increase since 1990 was driven by emissions from the road sector, which accounted for three quarters of transport emissions in 2014. Despite efforts to limit emissions from international transport, between 1990 and 2014, emissions from marine and aviation bunkers grew even faster than those from road (marine: +69% aviation: +95%).” p9.
“The transport sector [in Africa] remains almost entirely reliant on oil products, with few policies in place to promote the use of alternative fuels, such as biofuels“. African Energy outlook. IEA, 2014.
Initiatives, Policies, Legislation and Directives aimed at carbon reduction
The Paris Agreement “brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change” 148 (including the UK) of the 197 Parties to the Convention have ratified the agreement, the central aim of which is to keep the global rise in temperature in the 21st century to below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
An Actionable Vision of Decarbonization of Transport , Paris Process on Mobility and Climate (PPMC) February 2017. “For the Transport sector, the goal is to largely decarbonize and move from 7.7 Gt emissions/year down to 3 or 2 Gt by mid-century.” “The PPMC proposes the development of a Global Macro-Roadmap through a phased action process, covering a 2020-2050+ timeline and thereby covering both short as well as mid- to long-term actions. This Roadmap aims to give a realistic (technically feasible) vision, with an operational focus for each segment of the Transport sector (people and freight; road, railway, aviation, waterborne; urban and rural)”.
MARRAKECH: Efforts to revolutionize transport gaining momentum, UN climate conference told 12 November 2016
“Transport counts for 24 percent of energy related greenhouse gas emissions. Without disruptive action, transport emissions can be expected to grow from 7.7 gigatonnes to around 15 gigatonnes by 2050. For 45 percent of countries, transport is the largest source of energy related emissions. . . over the last 12 months, the MobiliseYourCity initiative secured 35 million euros in funding and announced the start of developing Sustainable Urban Mobility plans in Morocco and Cameroon. The Global Fuel Economy Initiative (GFEI) is supporting an additional 40 countries to realize the financial, and CO2 benefits of improved vehicle fuel economy. And Airport Carbon Accreditation Scheme now has 173 certified airports worldwide, including 26 carbon neutral airports.
International Energy Agency
The IEA conducts a broad range of transport research and analysis, focusing on ways in which countries can improve the sustainability of their transport systems. Policy advice is given to governments on the effectiveness of implementing advanced technologies, improving fuel efficiency and shifting to lower-carbon fuels and transport modes.
IEA The Global Fuel Economy Initiative (GFEI) – a partnership of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Transport Forum of the OECD (ITF), the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), the Institute for Transportation Studies at the University of California-Davis, and the FIA Foundation – works to secure real improvements in fuel economy and the maximum deployment of existing fuel economy technologies in vehicles across the world.
Fuel Economy Policies Implementation Tool (FEPIT) allows countries to analyse potential outcomes of different policy options based on the characteristics of their vehicle fleets in a range of different scenarios. It also aims to support countries as they seek to promote fuel economy policies.
IEA Mobility Model Partnership (MoMo) “is a global transport spreadsheet model that has been developed since 2003. It contains detailed by-mode, by-fuel and by-region historical data and projections to 2050 for the transport sector as well as the sector's energy and greenhouse gas implications.”
Electric Vehicles Inititiative - EV 30@30 campaign 8 June 2017. – “sets a collective aspirational goal to reach 30% sales share for electric vehicles by 2030.” Supported by Canada, China, Finland, France, India, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden. Webpage gives a brief description of the status, and aims, of each country in relation to electric vehicles.
World Energy Council (WEC)
World Energy Scenarios: Global Transport Scenarios 2050 Over the next four decades, the global transportation sector will face unprecedented challenges related to demographics, urbanization, pressure to minimize and dislocate emissions outside urban centres, congestion of aging transport infrastructure and growth in fuel demand.
In light of these challenges and the levels of uncertainty, the World Energy Council (WEC) decided to re-examine the future of the transport and mobility sector by building Global Transport Scenarios to 2050.” Includes assessments on the development of transport sections in Africa and the Middle East as well as more developed areas of the world.
United National Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
UNECE Renewable Energy Status Report 2017 This report covers 17 of the 56 UNECE countries (Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Russian Federation, Serbia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan).
Renewable energy can be used in the transport sector to replace fossil fuels with liquid or gaseous biofuels, and to power electric vehicles. Countries in the region continued to harness renewable energy in transport. Belarus has a reported liquid biofuels production capacity of 50 million litres of biodiesel per year, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia has a production capacity of 30,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year, and Ukraine has a production capacity of 500,000 tonnes of biodiesel and 131,000 tonnes of ethanol per year.
Biodiesel production in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia started in 2007 and is based on rapeseed (canola).71 The production is used for the sale of a B6 blend with diesel as well as for pure B100 biodiesel. Two additional biodiesel refineries have been announced for the country, one of which will use sunflower and soya as feedstock and is expected to produce 13,000 tonnes of biodiesel per year.
Electric mobility promotion programmes also are emerging in the region. In Ukraine, electric vehicles are developing rapidly. At least 1,700 electric vehicles were operational in 2016, and this number is expected to increase to 7,000 by the end of 2017. In Georgia, Tbilisi City Hall opened two electric vehicle charging stations, and the number of stations is expected to reach 100 by 2018. Currently, some 50 electric vehicles are being driven in the country.74 Belarus started a pilot production of electric buses in 2016. The country expects to reach 30,000 electric vehicles by 2025.75 With this target in mind, 20 charging stations are planned to be put into operation every year.”
World Health Organization (WHO)
Transport, Health and Environment Pan-European Programme (THE PEP) receives policy direction from the meeting of ministers of the transport, health and environment sectors, and is driven by a steering committee.
The Amsterdam Declaration (2009) defines the mandate for the PEP’s activities and included the goal: “reduce emissions of transport-related greenhouse gases, air pollutants and noise” – “by supporting a shift in the vehicle fleet towards zero- or low-emission vehicles and fuels based on renewable energy; promoting a shift towards clean transport modes and fostering electric mobility as well as ecodriving;”
European Environment Agency
Greenhouse gas emissions from transport EEA, Last modified 22 June 2017. Total greenhouse gas emissions from transport, including carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), are analysed in this indicator. Emissions are split into road transport, railways, domestic navigation, domestic aviation, international aviation and maritime transport.
"The EU's overall goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transport (including international aviation but not maritime bunkers) by 2050 to a level that is 60 % below that of 1990. This includes the intermediate goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport by 20 %, compared with 2008 levels, by 2030 (+8 % compared with 1990 levels). Similarly, shipping emissions (international maritime bunkers) are to be reduced by 40 % from 2005 levels by 2050. These overall transport targets are monitored annually and are in line with the target for the overall economy of a 20 % reduction in total greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 from 1990 levels. Other transport policies that support the achievement of these targets, such as the various regulations that set CO emission targets for new passenger cars and vans, are also monitored in the Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism (TERM).
As the transport sector is not included in the Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS sector), it is the responsibility of Member States to reduce transport emissions through national policies (for all non-ETS sectors, a 10 % reduction against 2005 levels by 2020 is foreseen), as opposed to sectors covered by the ETS (e.g. energy industries and industrial installations), where the emission reduction objective is to be achieved through an EU-wide trading scheme."
Energy efficiency and specific CO2 emissions EEA, Jan 2017. Has charts comparing CO2 from different modes of transport
European Union (EU)
EU Transport policy for 2010: time to decide: white paper. COM(2001)370 final. had two targets: a 20% reduction from 2008 levels by 2030, and a 60% reduction from 1990 levels by 2050. The proposed 2030 EU Climate and Energy policy framework (adopted October 2014) reiterates these goals.
White paper 2011: Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area - Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system
By 2050, key goals will include:
• No more conventionally-fuelled cars in cities.
• 40% use of sustainable low carbon fuels in aviation; at least 40% cut in shipping emissions.
• A 50% shift of medium distance intercity passenger and freight journeys from road to rail and waterborne transport.
• All of which will contribute to a 60% cut in transport emissions by the middle of the century.
In 2016, the Commission Services published an Implementation report on the 2011 White Paper giving update of progress so far – “there is still little progress achieved towards the goals set 2011”
EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) (2009/28/EC) set out biofuels sustainability criteria for all biofuels produced or consumed in the EU to ensure that they are produced in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. On 30 November 2016, the Commission published a proposal for a revised Renewable Energy Directive to make the EU a global leader in renewable energy and ensure that the target of at least 27% renewables in the final energy consumption in the EU by 2030 is met.
“In April 2009, Directive 2009/30/EC was adopted which revises the Fuel Quality Directive [Directive 98/70/EC]. It amends a number of elements of the petrol and diesel specifications as well as introducing in Article 7a a requirement on fuel suppliers to reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of energy supplied for road transport (Low Carbon Fuel Standard). In addition the Directive establishes sustainability criteria that must be met by biofuels if they are to count towards the greenhouse gas intensity reduction obligation.”
Webpage include status and targets for various transport fuels and a table of Electric charging points existing in 2011 and targets proposed for 2020.
EU launches clean fuel strategy 24 January 2013 “an ambitious package of measures to ensure the build-up of alternative fuel stations across Europe with common standards for their design and use. Policy initiatives so far have mostly addressed the actual fuels and vehicles, without considering fuels distribution. Efforts to provide incentives have been un-co-ordinated and insufficient.”
Clean fuels for transport: Member States now obliged to ensure minimum coverage of refuelling points for EU-wide mobility 29 September 2014
IEA policies and Measures databases - offer access to information, country by country, on energy-related policies and measures taken or planned, by IEA member countries (and a few others), to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve energy efficiency and support renewable energy development and deployment.
Government of Canada to develop a national Zero-Emissions Vehicle Strategy by 2018 In 2015, light-duty vehicle emissions accounted for approximately 50 percent of Canada’s transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions, and 12 percent of the country’s total emissions
"Finland is aiming to have quickly 5 to 7 EV friendly cities, with a focus on electrifying bus services.
Already now, the cities of Helsinki, Espoo, Tampere and Turku are running battery electric buses, and at the same time expanding fast charging systems for buses. Currently, the e-bus systems put in service in Finland are based on the concept of opportunity charging, meaning fast charging – approximately three minutes – at the terminal points."
Association nationale pour le développement de la mobilité électrique The ADVENIR programme is encouraging the installation of 12,000 EV charging stations
Smart and low carbon urban mobility in India UN Climate Change Conference, December 2014
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